Grades 6-8 | 8 (45 min) Classes

### Topics Covered

Thrust vs Altitude | Forces of Flight | Newton's Laws

### Essential Question

How does the thrust of an engine impact altitude?

### Overview

In this lesson, students will aim their rockets for the Moon! They will be challenged to launch a rocket that will reach an altitude of 800 feet- no more, no less. Students will take on the role of engineers for NASA who must choose the appropriate fuel supply for a rocket destined to the Moon.

Students will hypothesize how the thrust of the engine will affect the rocket’s apogee – highest altitude it reaches. After a review of the four forces of flight, students will practice using the Mini AltiTrak™, an altitude tracking device. After analyzing the data, students will apply those learnings to build an Estes Rocket and analyze its flight. They will state a hypothesis and identify the independent and dependent variables.

After the flight, the students will combine their data into a class data chart for better analysis. They will compare the results and determine the answer to the essential question, How does the thrust of a model rocket engine affect the altitude of the rocket’s flight?

The student’s final product will be to complete a Choice Project. Details and a rubric are included. An optional Multiple-Choice Assessment is also provided.

### Each Student Needs:

• Student Design Portfolio
• Safety Goggles
• Clipboard
• Calculator
• Tennis Ball (or other small ball)
• Estes Rocket Kit

### MS-PS2-2

Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

### MS-PS2-4

Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

### MS-ETS 1-2

Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.A.1

Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.C.9

Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another..

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.B.5

Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.1

Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.2

Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.2.A

Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.RP.A.2.B

Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships. .

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.A.1

Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.A.2

Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.3

Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.B.5

Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.5

Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph.

### CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSG.SRT.C.8

Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems.

### Live, Online Training and 1:1 Support!

Estes Education has been a leader in STEM education for over 60 years. We know that STEM is a vital interdisciplinary topic that requires hands-on and inclusive learning. Explore these supporting materials to take learning to new heights!

Should you have need, you can meet with a member of Education team for FREE, 1:1 online support to learn rocketry basics, how to apply our curriculum, and discover unique teaching strategies. Our team is eager to answer your questions!

### ACCELERATION

The rate at which an object increases its speed.

### ALTITUDE

The height or vertical distance of an object as measured from the ground.

### ALTITUDE MEASURING DEVICE

An instrument used to measure the altitude or height of an object.

### ANGULAR DISTANCE

The angle between two objects as seen by an observer.

### APOGEE

The peak altitude or highest point of a rocket’s flight.

### DECELERATION

The reduction in speed, to slow down (the opposite of acceleration).

### DRAG

The aerodynamic force that opposes an aircraft’s motion through the air.

### FORCE

A push or pull upon an object resulting from the object’s interaction with another object.

### GRAVITY

Force that pulls everything down toward the center of the Earth.

### LIFT

The force that directly opposes the weight of an aircraft and holds an aircraft in the air.

### MINI ALTITRAK

A gravity protractor used to determine the height of a rocket flight from the angle of the user’s body to the apogee of the rocket flight.

### TANGEANT OF ANGLE

A trigonometric ratio in a right triangle calculated as the length of the opposite side of an angle divided by the length of the adjacent side of the same angle.

### THRUST

The propulsive force that moves something forward.

### Learn About Model Rocket Safety!

Not sure how to safely launch a rocket with your group? Head over to our dedicated Safety instructions page for videos, support, and more!